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 Trzecia Rzesza 1933-1945 - historia państwa
Listopad 29 2022 23:28:30    Historia ~ Ludzie Hitlera ~ Narzędzia Wojny ~ Prusy Wschodnie ~ Mapa strony
 

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       Witzleben, Erwin von

Urodził się 4 grudnia 1881 roku we Wrocławiu. Był synem pruskiego oficera. Ukończył naukę w Zakładzie Kadetów w Gross-Lichterfelde. W roku 1901 wstępuje jako podporucznik do 7 pułku grenadierów w Legnicy. W 1910 roku otrzymuje awans na porucznika a w dwa miesiące po rozpoczęciu pierwszej wojny światowej na kapitana. W okresie tego konfliktu wałczył na froncie zachodnim jako dowódca kompanii. Brał udział w walkach pod Verdun. W kwietniu 1917 roku obejmuje dowództwo bataliony piechoty. W późniejszym okresie zostaje ciężko ranny, a po rekonwalescencji przeniesiony zostaje w sierpniu 1918 roku do Sztabu Generalnego. Po zakończeniu pierwszej wojny światowej powrócił do 7 pułku grenadierów. W okresie Republiki Weimarskiej był na przemian oficerem w Sztabie Generalnym i dowódcą wojsk liniowych. Jego sumienna praca była nagradzana kolejnymi awansami: w 1923 roku został majorem, w 1929 roku podpułkownikiem, w 1931 roku pułkownikiem, a w 1934 roku generałem majorem. W lutym 1934 roku generał von Fritsch został mianowany szefem kierownictwa Wojsk Lądowych zaś von Witzleben objął po nim stanowisko dowódcy III Okręgu Wojskowego. Kolejne awanse to w końcu roku 1934 na generała porucznika zaś w 1936 roku na generała piechoty. Narodowy socjalizm budził w nim odrazę, zwłaszcza po morderstwach w czasie afery Rohma. Latem 1937 roku zdecydował się na opór wobec Hitlera. Witzleben zawiązuje spisek, do którego włącza kilka znanych postaci m.in. Kleista i Hoepnera, a w późniejszym czasie nawiązuje kontakty z Halderem. Obaj planowali na jesień 1938 roku obalenie Hitlera. Jednak ogólne zadowolenie społeczeństwa po zajęciu Czechosłowacji uniemożliwiło podjęcie działań, które w takiej atmosferze z góry były skazane na niepowodzenie. Podczas ataku na Polskę Witzleben był dowódcą 1 Armii na granicy niemiecko-francuskiej. Po raz kolejny nawiązuje kontakt z Halderem i Brauchitschem. Tym razem obaj odmawiają współpracy. Witzleben nadal postanowił utrzymywać kontakty z opozycją mimo rozczarowania jej biernością. Po zwycięstwie nad Polską Witzleben otrzymuje nominację na generała pułkownika.

Jesienią 1940 roku Halder ponownie zaczyna rozważać kwestię puczu. Witzleben bez wahania wyraża gotowość do wystąpienia ze swoimi oddziałami przeciwko Hitlerowi. Jednak i tym razem opozycja zarzuca swe plany. Kolejne zwycięstwo Wehrmachtu tym razem na Zachodzie to kolejne awanse dla oficerów w tym także dla Witzlebena. Otrzymuje on nominację na feldmarszałka. Podczas gdy większość niemieckich wojsk została przeniesiona na wschód do planowanego ataku na Związek Radziecki, Witzleben w październiku 194 roku obejmuje dowództwo Grupy Armii D we Francji i wiosną 1941 roku zostaje dowódcą obszaru operacyjnego Zachód. Gdy w marcu 1942 jest zmuszony wziąć urlop, aby poddać się operacji Hitler, który zawsze wątpił w jego lojalność, wykorzystuje sytuacje i ze względów zdrowotnych zwalnia feldmarszałka ze stanowiska. Będąc w stanie spoczynku Witzleben przebywał, w Zossen niedaleko Poczdamu, w posiadłości zaprzyjaźnionego barona zu Dynara. Nadal borykał się z kłopotami zdrowotnymi (wrzody żołądka). Ciągle jednak utrzymywał kontakty z opozycją. Po planowanym zamachu miał zostać w miejsce Hitlera naczelnym dowódcą Wehrmachtu. Gdy 20 lipca 1944 roku w Głównej Kwaterze Hitlera eksplodowała podłożona przez Stauffenberga bomba, Witzleben, zgodnie z planem, pojechał po południu do siedziby Naczelnego Dowództwa Wojsk Lądowych. Witzleben szybko mianuje następców aresztowanych dygnitarzy niemieckich. Ciosem dla spiskowców była wysłana o godzinie 16.15 wiadomość przez Keitela szefa OKW Fuhrer żyje! Dowódcą Wojsk Zapasowych jest reichsfuhrer SS, ważne są tylko jego rozkazy. Nie wykonywać rozkazów generała pułkownika Fromma i feldmarszałka Witzlebena. Witzleben nie świadom tej depeszy nadal występował w roli naczelnego dowódcy wojskowej strony zamachu stanu i około godziny 17.00 wysłał do Okręgów Wojskowych dalekopis.

Informuje w nim że za puczem stoją elementy partyjne i że w celu utrzymania porządku cała władza zostaje przekazana właśnie jemu. Około godziny 19.30 Witzleben odwiedził Becka i Stauffenberga w bloku dowódczym przy Bendlerstrasse; robił im gwałtowne wymówki z powody dyletanckiego przeprowadzenia zamachu. Następnie mocno poirytowany udał się do domu. Dlaczego tak demonstracyjnie uznał pucz za nieudany i zrezygnował, pozostanie niewyjaśnione. O godzinie 22.00 stało się jasne, że próba puczu załamała się. Następnego dnia Witzleben zostaje aresztowany. 7 sierpnia zostaje postawiony przed Trybunałem Ludowym. Prezes Trybunału Roland Kreisler brutalnie beształ oficerów (oprócz Witzlebena sądzeni tego dnia byli Hoepner, von Hase). Witzleben stał przed nim bez protezy zębowej i bez paska od spodni; obie te rzeczy, podczas brutalnego przesłuchania odebrało mu gestapo. Postarzały o lata patrzył przed siebie pustym wzrokiem. Witzleben przyznał, jaką rolę odgrywał w puczu; jego duma i prawość nie pozwalały mu na inne zachowanie. Został uznany winnym i skazany na śmierć przez powieszenie. Hitler życzył sobie, żeby spiskowców wieszano jak bydło na rzeźnickich hakach i przebieg egzekucji kazał filmować dla celów propagandowych. Witzleben był pierwszym, którego stracono w ten sposób. Później jednak w propagandzie Goebbelsa nie wykorzystano zdjęć filmowych. Być może miało to związek z tym, że skazańcy pozostali nieugięci w obliczu tej poniżającej egzekucji.

Dodane przez LukLog dnia maj 01 2006 18:02:56
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