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 Trzecia Rzesza 1933-1945 - historia państwa
Wrzesień 29 2022 20:32:14    Historia ~ Ludzie Hitlera ~ Narzędzia Wojny ~ Prusy Wschodnie ~ Mapa strony
 

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       Arado Ar 232

Jesienią 1939 roku Technisches Amt sprecyzował wymagania stawiane średniej wielkości samolotowi transportowemu mającemu zastąpić dotychczas używane w jednostkach Luftwaffe Junkersy Ju 52/3 m. Warunki te wysłano do firm Arado i Henschel. Nowy samolot miał być napędzany dwoma silnikami BMW 801, kadłub powinien pomieścić dwa samochody terenowe lub ładunek podobnej wielkości i ciężaru, do załadunku i rozładunku miała służyć rampa umieszczona w tylnej dolnej części kadłuba. Konstrukcja podwozia umożliwiać miała start i lądowanie na polowych lotniskach. Po wstępnej ocenie projektów obu firm RLM przyjęto do realizacji projekt Arado i złożyło zamówienie na trzy prototypy samolotu Ar 232. Ar 232 V1 był metalowym grzbietopłatem o pękatym kadłubie, z którego wychodziła belka ogonowa z umieszczonym na jej końcu usterzeniem poziomym i zdwojonym usterzeniem pionowym. Cechą charakterystyczną nowej maszyny było niekonwencjonalne rozwiązanie podwozia. Obok zasadniczego trójgoleniowego podwozia chowanego w locie, umieszczono pod kadłubem 22 stałe kota o malej średnicy, które umożliwiały start i lądowanie w trudnych warunkach terenowych. Napęd stanowiły dwa silniki BMW 801 MA o mocy startowej 1176 kW (1600 KM). Pierwsze loty próbne Ar 232V1 (VD + YA) odbył w czerwcu 1941 roku. Wkrótce gotowy był również drugi prototyp Ar 232V2 {VD + YB), na którym zamontowane zostało uzbrojenie obronne składające się z 13 mm karabinu maszynowego MG 131 z zapasem 500 sztuk naboi znajdującego się w oszklonym nosie samolotu, 20 mm działka MG 151/20 w ruchomej wieżyczce na grzbiecie kadłuba tuż za kabiną pilota oraz drugiego karabinu maszynowego MG 131 strzelającego ze stanowiska umieszczonego pod belką ogonową. Z uwagi na swój niekonwencjonalny wygląd maszyna otrzymała przydomek Tausencfussler (stonoga). Piąty samolot serii Ar 232 B-05 oznaczany też Ar 232V8 napędzany był czterema francuskimi silnikami Gnome-Rhone 14M o mocy 515 kW {700 KM) każdy. Maszyna ta wystartowała do pierwszego lotu w maju 1943 roku. Ar 232V8 posiadał dodatkowe zbiorniki paliwa, dzięki czemu zapas paliwa zwiększył się z normalnych 2700 dm3 do 5000 dm3.Samolot ten używany był w bazie Ba-nak w północnej Norwegii jako maszyna rozpoznania meteorologicznego.

Również Ar 232 B-08 (V11) używany był w Norwegii, jego podwozie główne zastąpione zostało płozami, które nie były chowane w locie. W końcu roku 1942 Ar 232 V1 i V2 oraz cztery maszyny serii Ar 232 B-0 zostały przekazane do jednej z eskadr, Erganzungstransportgeschwader (Uzupełniający Pułk Transportowy) dowodzonego przez ppłk. Fabiunke bazującego w rejonie Stalingradu. Eskadra Ar 232 wykonywała loty zaopatrzeniowe dla okrążonej 6 Armii, aż do momentu jej kapitulacji w dniu 2 lutego 1943 roku. Dowódcą eskadry był maj. Pelz. To właśnie jeden z samolotów Ar 232 był ostatnią maszyną Luftwaffe, która wystartowała z "kotła stalingradzkiego" przed zakończeniem walk. Wkrótce po bitwie stalingradzkiej Ar 232 V1 rozbił się podczas przelotu nad Niemcami. Był to pierwszy samolot tego typu, który uległ zniszczeniu. W marcu 1944 roku Ar 232 zasiliły I./TG 5 dowodzony przez maj. Gunthera Maussa, a stacjonujący wówczas w Odessiemy końcu roku Erganzungsstaffel (Eskadra Uzupełniająca) dowodzona przez maj. Pełza została rozwiązana, a samoloty przekazano do Transport-Staffel 5, dowodzonej przez kpi. Wasserkrafta. Obie jednostki używające Ar 232 (I./KG 200 oraz TSt. 5) często współpracowały z sobą i podczas jednej z takich wspólnych operacji 5 września 1944 roku, jeden z Ar 232 B-0 wiozący sabotażystów biorących udział w operacji "Zeppelin" (próba zniszczenia ważnych strategicznie celów w rejonie Moskwy) uderzył o drzewa i spłonął w niewielkiej odległości od radzieckiej stolicy. W marcu 1945 roku Transport-Staffel 5 została przemianowana na 14./TG 4. Jednostka ta wyposażona była w tym czasie w trzy FockeWulfy Fw 200C, trzy Junkersy Ju 90, trzy Piaggio P.108 T, cztery Ar 232 B-0 i Ar 232V2. Niedługo potem rozwiązano tę jednostkę, a wszystkie samoloty przekazano do I./KG 200. W dniu 8 maja 194S roku wszystkie, za wyjątkiem jednego, Ar 232 zostały zniszczone przez własne załogi. Jedyny ocalały egzemplarz przeleciał do Wielkiej Brytanii pilotowany przez sierżanta Funka i był pokazywany później w październiku i listopadzie 1945 roku na wystawie zdobytych samolotów niemieckich w Farnborough. Pomimo, że tylko dwadzieścia dwa samoloty Ar 232 zostały wyprodukowane firma Arado planowała podjęcie produkcji jego wersji rozwojowej Ar 432. Maszyna ta miała być oparta na konstrukcji Ar 232 B-0, jednakże ważne strategicznie materiały, takie jak stopy aluminium i duraluminium miały być zastąpione przez stal i drewno. Do zbudowania prototypu tego samolotu jednak nie doszło.

Dodane przez LukLog dnia maj 03 2006 14:12:45
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