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 Trzecia Rzesza 1933-1945 - historia państwa
Wrzesień 25 2022 04:55:55    Historia ~ Ludzie Hitlera ~ Narzędzia Wojny ~ Prusy Wschodnie ~ Mapa strony
 

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       11. Bombardowanie Kolonii

Nalot na Kolonię jest uznawany za punkt kulminacyjny wojny powietrznej nad Niemcami. Był to pierwszy "nalot tysiąca bombowców". Marszałek lotnictwa Harris dzięki temu nalotowi spowodował stłumienie krytyki, która wytykała lotnictwu raczej skromne jak dotąd sukcesy. Sam nalot różnił się od poprzednich taktyką, jaka została przyjęta. Otóż wszystkie eskadry strumienia bombowców wybierają tę samą drogę. Dzięki temu zwiększa się ilość zrzucanych bomb (w ciągu minuty 7 maszyn może zrzucić swój ładunek). Dodatkowo owy gęsty strumień nie porusza się na jednakowej wysokości, co utrudnia niemieckiej obronie przeciwlotniczej określić dokładny kurs i pułap maszyn, czego wynikiem jest znaczny spadek skuteczności dział. Kwestia samych ataków na bezbronne miasta została moim zdaniem lekko pominięta przez historię. Faktem jest że Niemcy również przeprowadzali rajdy nad angielskie miasta. Należy również pamiętać o rakietach, których Niemcy również sporo wycelowali i wystrzelili w stronę brytyjskich miast. Nie zgadzam się jednak z tym, aby zło zwalczać złem. Wydaje mi się, że żadna sytuacja nie uprawnia drugiej strony do łamania prawa. O ile jeszcze nalot na Kolonię można próbować wytłumaczyć chęcią złamania woli walki w narodzie niemieckim o tyle zupełnie bezpodstawne wydaje się przeprowadzenie nalotów np. na Drezno w lutym 1945 roku. Przecież wynik wojny był już w tym czasie przesądzony a Drezno nie miało żadnego militarnego znaczenia.

Powróćmy jednak do tematu. Nalot odbył się w nocy z 30 na 31 maja 1942 roku. Wzięło w nim udział 1046 maszyn, które wystartowały z 52 lotnisk w Wielkiej Brytanii. Do celu doleciało 868 samolotów, które zrzuciły na centrum miasta 1455 ton bomb. 2/3 bomb to bomby zapalające. Nad miejscem ataku samoloty dzielą się na kilka grup. Jedne z nich lecą nisko zrzucając bomby odłamkowe, które obezwładniają obsługę dział przeciwlotniczych. Inne zaś wzbijały się wyżej kumulując na sobie ogień przeciwlotniczy. Nalot trwał około 90 minut. Jak później się okazało wywołał on 5.000 pożarów, powodując czterokrotnie większe szkody niż 70 poprzednich ataków z udziałem 2.000 samolotów. Zniszczenia w infrastrukturze miasta były olbrzymie. 3330 budowli leżało w zgliszczach kolejnych 9510 jest ciężko uszkodzonych, 45.000 ludzi straciło swe domostwa. Poza tym w nalocie ginie 474 mieszkańców dalsze 5.000 jest rannych. Te niezwykle zadowalające skutki bombardowań można było osiągnąć dzięki zastosowaniu nowych zasobników z materiałami zapalającymi jak i dokładnemu zaplanowaniu całej akcji. Dodatkowo samoloty Aliantów zrzucały w dokładnie zaplanowane miejsca ładunki burzące, które przyśpieszały rozprzestrzenianie się pożarów. Podczas nalotu na Kolonię Bomber Command traci jedynie 43 maszyny zaś 116 dalszych zostaje poważnie trafionych (większość z nich rozbija się podczas lądowania w Anglii). Nalot był kluczowym wydarzeniem, jeśli chodzi o dalszą wojnę powietrzną nad Niemcami. Obie strony wyciągnęły dla siebie wnioski.

Niemcy zdali sobie sprawę, że dotychczasowy parasol ochronny ma wiele wad. Zawodzi on w przypadku gęstego, zwartego strumienia bombowców, ponieważ stanowiska kierowania nocnych myśliwców mogą każdorazowo naprowadzić jedynie jeden myśliwiec. Dodatkowo wypadałoby pamiętać, że niemieckie radary miały tendencje do częstych awarii. Dochodzi do sytuacji, że jednoczesne wykrywanie i naprowadzanie własnych samolotów na bombowce wroga staje się niemożliwe. W tym czasie za niemiecką obronę przeciwlotnicza odpowiada gen.por. Kammhuber. Postanawia zmodernizować linię obrony, którą sam wcześniej stworzył. Poszerza ją wprowadzając nowe stanowiska obrony przeciwlotniczej. Rozwiązane zostają ryglowe zespoły reflektorów a ich załogi od tej pory mają za zadanie obsadzać dodatkowe stanowiska obrony przeciwlotniczej. Od tego momentu Niemcy zdali sobie sprawę jak wielkie niebezpieczeństwo grozi ich przemysłowi. Dlatego też większa część produkcji została przeniesiona do miejscowości bardziej na południe lub wschód kraju.

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